what makes the pH shift? read more
the unknown anions (XA) read more
the body's weak acids: albumin, phosphate and citrate read more
the role of albumin read more
of course albumin is a buffer - or isn't it? read more
guessing values - albumin and phosphate read more
the role of chloride read more
why chloride is crucial read more
Clcorr - absolute adjustment for sodium Na+ read more
Clcorr - proportional adjustment for sodium Na+ read more
the effective strong ion difference (SIDeff) read more
the apparent strong ion difference (SIDapp) read more
protein binding of calcium and magnesium read more
what about BE (base excess)? read more
osmolality and the osmolar gap read more
trometamol (THAM) read more
lactate - is it really an acid? read more
does haemoglobin act as a buffer? read more
"Winters' rules", or "the bicarbonate rules of thumb" read more
a van Slyke type of osmolality calculation read more
controversy! a discussion on ccm-l read more
"buffering" - what do we do, chemically?
or: Stewart in a nutshell ....
read more
ionic concentration, ionic activity, ionic strength read more
the mathematics behind predicting pH changes read more
the formulae behind our calculations read more
the normal and abnormal value ranges and interpretations behind our calculations read more
presentation #1 about the Stewart approach (2007) read more
presentation #2 about the Stewart approach (2014) read more